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Public Health: Public Health

What is Public Health

The best known definition was written by C-E. A. Winslow in 1920.

“Public Health is the science and the art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, the control of community infections, the education of the individual in principles of personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing service for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and the development of the social machinery which will ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health; organizing these benefits in such fashion as to enable every citizen to realize his birthright of health and longevity.”

C-E. A. Winslow. Founder of  department that eventually became Yale School of Public Health.

Social Determinants of Health

The main determinants of health (Dahlgren and Whitehead, 1991)

"Conditions in the places where people live, learn, work, and play affect a wide range of health risks and outcomes. These conditions are known as social determinants of health (SDOH)."

"We know that poverty limits access to healthy foods and safe neighborhoods and that more education is a predictor of better health.We also know that differences in health are striking in communities with poor SDOH such as unstable housing, low income, unsafe neighborhoods, or substandard education."

CDC Social Determinants of Health


Century, I. of M. (US) C. on A. the H. of the P. in the  21st. (2002). Understanding Population Health and Its Determinants. National Academies Press (US). 

Levels of Preventions

The 10 Essential Public Health Services

  1. Monitor health status to identify and solve community health problems
  2. Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community
  3. Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues
  4. Mobilize community partnerships and action to identify and solve health problems
  5. Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts
  6. Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety
  7. Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable
  8. Assure competent public and personal health care workforce
  9. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services
  10. Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems

CDC - Public Health System and the 10 Essential Public Health Services—OSTLTS. 

One Health

The One Health Initiative is a movement to forge co-equal, all inclusive collaborations between physicians, osteopathic physicians, veterinarians, dentists, nurses and other scientific-health and environmentally related disciplines, including the American Medical Association, American Veterinary Medical Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Nurses Association, American Association of Public Health Physicians, the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the U.S. National Environmental Health Association (NEHA). Additionally, more than 950 prominent scientists, physicians and veterinarians worldwide have endorsed the initiative.

Social Determinants of Health Resources

Social Determinants of Health Resources:



What is Public Health

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